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媒体广告宣传

在全球,媒体宣传作为一项重要的控烟措施,并没有得到充分利用。持续的大规模媒体宣传可以有效督促数以百万计的人戒烟,并防止新的吸烟者出现,为政策调整创建有利的环境。

As individuals’ knowledge and belief in the toxic health effects of tobacco use grows, the likelihood of using tobacco decreases and their support for protective policies increases. Mass media gives us the opportunity to efficiently persuade large populations about the urgent need for action. Using media to inspire individuals to quit tobacco or persuade them not to start using it, and societies to take up policies for a tobacco-free future is a critical part of the tobacco control toolbox.

Media campaigns are embedded both in both WHO FCTC Article 12 and the WHO MPOWER package – “W” for Warning. Successful campaigns change individual behavior, shift broader social norms, and build popular support for tobacco control policies. Moreover, research in countries across the Human Development Index (HDI) demonstrates that campaigns can be cost-effective – just a few cents per quit attempt in some countries.

Two essential components of successful campaigns are effective messaging and delivery. Research consistently demonstrates the effectiveness of campaigns that challenge audiences to deal with the specific negative impacts of smoking – e.g., cancer, blindness and lung disease. Some examples are victims’ real-world testimonials or graphic depictions of damage.

Best-practice campaigns use behavioral research to test messages with intended audiences— e.g., male smokers— to ensure they are effective and culturally relevant. In lower-HDI countries, costly research can be avoided by adapting campaigns from other areas that have a strong evidence of success and target similar populations— e.g., compelling graphic images have been found to have wide application across many cultures. Supporting campaign messages such as highlighting stories of happy ex-smokers may also reinforce smokers’ belief they can successfully quit. A poorly-messaged campaign can have little or no impact. Finally, it is critical to rigorously evaluate a campaign’s impact.

Underinvestment in media delivery and planning is a frequent failing of tobacco control programs. Successful use of mass media requires sustained campaigns with broad population reach. This includes keeping campaigns “on the air” most months of the year. The most successful campaigns use a mix of media channels— usually television and radio due to their high reach and proven impact —with social and digital media as an emerging tool in many key populations. Sustained media delivery with high reach, such as extended national television campaigns, can be expensive. Many countries have implemented innovative policies to ensure that their tobacco control media campaigns receive placements. These range from health promotion foundations that utilize tobacco taxes to fund campaigns to legislation that mandates television and radio channels dedicate a portion of prime-time programming to public health messages.

Recent evidence shows that campaigns can use social media to mobilize large populations to advocate for tobacco control policies. In Vietnam, small-dollar social media ads on Facebook were used to generate significant public discourse online and offline around pending legislation, which ultimately passed.


无效的做法

在校内开展的反烟草教育活动已被证实基本上是无效的。经证实,最具影响力的广告宣传是那些面向广大民众的大众媒体,这些媒体在一年中大部分时间都会传播极具说服力的有关烟草危害的信息。

来源

Photo Credit: Children smoking “Philippines, Luzon Island, Manila, Chinatown, street children.” Hemis / Alamy Stock Photo.

有效的做法

澳大利亚长期以来利用大众媒体的宣传,已帮助将成年人和青少年的烟草使用率降到了历史低位。该国持续使用电视、广播和数字平台让更多的人了解吸烟的危害,且制作了被全球广泛采用的平面广告。

来源

Photo Credit: Smoking figures Courtesy New York City Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene.

前沿做法

土耳其全面的烟草控制法律要求电视台和广播电台每月播放 90 分钟的卫生部广告,其中包括高峰时段的30分钟。利用这一创新战略,土耳其每年都能举办大量反烟草宣传活动,触及诸多民众,并促使数百万人戒烟。

来源

Photo Credit: Turkey Ministry of Health ad “Mehmet”, Ministry of Health, Government of Turkey.

大众媒体最佳实践的国家

虽然高、低人类发展指数 (HDI) 的国家均已开展了黄金标准的媒体广告宣传,但是在全球,媒体宣传活动仍未得到充分利用。

世卫组织的最佳实践–有效媒体宣传的要素:

  • 全面控烟计划的一部分
  • 通过研究全面了解目标受众。
  • 根据宣传的目的,通过目标受众预先测试的材料。
  • 使用有效的媒体计划和购买流程,获得节目播出时间和广告投放。
  • 实施人员与新闻工作者合作来取得宣传效果,或获得媒体关注
  • 在电视和/或广播中播出
  • 根据宣传的实施情况,进行过程评估
  • 根据宣传的实施情况,进行过程评估

媒体投放的创新策略

大众传媒的效率极高,可以用极低的人均成本触及数以百万的受众,但是同时也需要政府对媒体投放的大力支持。一些政府已找出了创新的策略来克服这一障碍:

将大众传媒宣传成本转移给烟草行业。例如,在印度,只要在电影或电视节目中播出烟草消费镜头,则必须同时播出卫生部认可的反烟草消费信息。

通过健康促进基金或类似机制将烟草税收入专门用于大众传媒宣传活动。在泰国和越南,通过有效的措施,健康促进基金已达到数千万美元。

要求广播公司提供免费的广播时间。在土耳其,国家烟草控制法要求所有广播公司每月播放 90 分钟的控烟内容。

政府做出为期多年的出资承诺。2008 年,澳大利亚政府签订了一份为期多年的协议,到2014年期间资助各州开展宣传活动。