solution

全球策略

为公共健康而实施的烟草控制政策,加强了各国政府对联合国可持续发展目标的承诺。烟草税可产生可观的财政收入,对于发展而言,是一项潜在的双赢政策。

To address the tobacco menace more successfully, there have been important, over-arching global efforts to promote tobacco control. One of the central initiatives to situate country-level efforts in the global context has been the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), which came into force in 2005 and provides a systematic framework of obligations and corresponding guidelines to reach tobacco control success. The ratification of this international treaty is voluntary and draws upon the political commitment of signatory countries to develop, implement and enforce the interventions. As of late 2017, the treaty had 181 Parties. For many, it provides effective political acceptability to implement politically-challenging measures.

The implementation of key tobacco control demand-reduction measures (e.g., tobacco taxation; smoke-free policies; packaging and labeling provisions; marketing bans; and cessation programs) at the highest levels of achievement accelerated among the WHO FCTC Parties between 2007 and 2014. Effective implementation of these measures is significantly associated with lower smoking prevalence, which typically leads to considerable reductions in tobacco-related morbidity and mortality.

Global tobacco control also fits snugly into broader public health efforts, for example by constituting a major element of the United Nations’ efforts to address noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) around the world. The 2012 Political Declaration of the High-Level Meeting of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) recognized the enormous health and economic burden of NCDs on households and nations, and agreed to reduce deaths from four prominent NCDs (i.e. cancer, diabetes, lung disease and cardiovascular disease) [MAIN MAP]. The WHO created voluntary targets for prevention of premature deaths from these NCDs, which includes a 30% relative reduction in adult smoking prevalence.

Global tobacco control became even more salient through the integration of the WHO FCTC in the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals [SDGs]. These goals not only reaffirmed the commitment of sovereign governments to fulfill tobacco control implementation for public health, but also for sustainable development. National planning to achieve these goals by 2030 provides opportunities for governments to demonstrate that reducing tobacco use is critical to achieving development goals and empowers them to incorporate tobacco control best practices into many development-related policies, paving the way to a tobacco-free generation.


Momentum is also building globally— including from organizations such as the World Bank— to use tobacco tax revenue for financing poverty alleviation and other development programs critical to many resource-poor countries. With the opportunity to generate significant revenue while reducing tobacco consumption and tobacco-induced health and environmental costs, tobacco taxation can stand out as a win-win policy for development.


菲律宾罪恶税改革成功案例

2012年 12 月,菲律宾实施了具有里程碑意义的“罪恶税改革“,旨在扩大全民医保 (UHC) 的覆盖范围,同时为烟农的替代生计项目和健康促进项目提供资金。超过 85% 的烟酒消费税新增收入用于这些项目。2013 年是“罪恶税法”实施的第一年,新增收入为 12.1 亿美元,2014 年为 11.3 亿美元,2015 年为 16.1 亿美元。每年的实际收入都高于预期目标。

烟草税有助于烟草控制和发展

如果每个国家将每盒 20 支装卷烟的消费税提高 1 美元(购买力平价,PPP),则全球消费税收入每年将增加 1900 亿美元(购买力平价,PPP),这可以帮助全球 7.67 亿贫困人口中的四分之一脱贫。

非传染性疾病对人类的危害

2016 年非传染性疾病致死人数占总死亡人数的百分比 (%)

References

Goodchild M, Perucic AM, Nargis N. Modelling the impact of raising tobacco taxes on public health and finance. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2016; 94:250-257.

Gravely S, Giovino GA, Craig LV, et al. Implementation of key demand-reduction measures of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and change in smoking prevalence in 126 countries: an association study. The Lancet Public Health 2017. 2. e166-74.

UN. Transforming our World: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. New York: United National General Assembly, 2015.

UN. Political Declaration of the High-level Meeting of the General Assembly on the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases. New York: United Nations General Assembly, 2012.

WHO. WHO framework convention on tobacco control. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2003.